This website will sometimes refer to Morningland as a cult. The term is not meant to be used in a derogatory way but to remain aligned with contemporary researchers who study similar groups. We do not condone violence or discrimination against any group. The following article seeks to establish a better understanding of terminologies related to new religious movements, high demand groups, types of cults, their underlying hierarchical structures, and transparency, and how that relates to our shared Morningland experiences.
We thought we joined a spiritual movement, a spiritual family of other idealists who wished to live in a better world and be better people. We stayed in Morningland because we liked the idea of having spiritual teachers and a community-based lifestyle. If there were nothing good about Morningland, we would not have stayed. But with time, many of us began to identify red flags, disrespectful and manipulative behavior. Initially, we ignored or justified them with what we were taught to think, “Ah, The Gopis or Patricia (Sri Donato) are just people with flaws, but their intentions were good. ” Others followed their Buddhist-inspired instructions of ‘correct’ thinking, “If I see a fault in a guru, I am not seeing correctly.” For many of us, the disillusionment was a slow process. Leaving the group in which we invested years of our lives was traumatic but necessary. We did not think we were in a cult when we were in it – the justifications, blind spots, and their belief system make it very hard to see it from the inside. Only after we left, and began talking to one another, sharing experiences, and especially learning about similar groups could we see our Morningland experience more objectively, outside the confines of their “correct thinking.”
In the U.S., the word cult has a derogatory undertone due to a history of cult leaders such as Jim Jones, David Koresh, and mass suicides. Additionally, a cult is not a very descriptive word as we do not have a single, unified meaning. For example, there are many types of cults. Their control, influence, and destructiveness vary between and within groups. Some are close to benign, while others can be dangerous, with many falling somewhere in between. Researchers Hassan, PhD, and Lalich, PhD agree that an unhealthy group will have the following ingredients:
- The authoritarian pyramid power structure
- Charismatic authoritarian leader
- Transcendent ideology
- Control Mechanisms and Influence which include deception
These factors are not always immediately apparent unless one knows what to look for, which this article seeks to establish.
CULT – NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT – HIGH DEMAND GROUP – INTENTIONAL COMMUNITIES
CULT, simplified definitions:
The earliest known uses of the word, recorded in the 17th century, broadly denoted “worship.” By the early 18th century, cult could refer to a non-religious admiration or devotion, such as to a person, idea, or fad (“the cult of success”). Finally, by the 19th century, the word came to be used of “a religion regarded as unorthodox or spurious.'” (Merriam-Webster dictionary)
Cults come in many forms: political, terrorist, racist, religious, New Age, personal transformation, psychotherapy, multilevel marketing, one-on-one, occult, satanic, a cult of personality, etc. (Lalich, PhD, Take Back Your Life)
Two types of cults that, in our opinion, describe Morningland well are the New Age Cult and the Cult of Personality.
New Age cult:
“Often the leader presents herself or himself as mystical, an ultra-spiritual being, a channeler, a medium, or a superhero. New Age groups, more so than some of the other types, tend to have female leaders. Members rely on New Age paraphernalia, such as crystals, astrology, runes, shamanic devices, holistic medicine, herbs, spirit beings, or Tarot or other magic cards. Practices and influence techniques: magic tricks, altered states, peer pressure, channeling, UFO sightings, “chakra” adjustments, faith healing, or claiming to speak with or through ascended masters, spiritual entities, and the like.” (Lalich, PhD)
The Encyclopedia Britannica writes about the New Age Movement that achieved its peak in the 1970s and 80s. “It looked forward to a “New Age” of love and light and offered a foretaste of the coming era through personal transformation and healing. The movement’s strongest supporters were followers of modern esotericism, a religious perspective that is based on the acquisition of mystical knowledge and that has been popular in the West since the 2nd century AD.”
Cult of Personality:
Cults of personality are rooted in a belief that reflects the charismatic personality and interests and proclivities of the revered leader. Such groups tend to revolve around a particular theme or interest, such as martial arts, opera, dance, theater, a certain form of art, or a type of medicine or healing. Practices and influence techniques include intense training sessions, rituals, blatant egocentrism, or elitist attitudes and behaviors.” (Lalich, PhD)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT (NRM) is a modern term often used for cults that are new religions. Gopis often said that Morningland was a New Religious Movement.
The term new religious movement has been applied to all new faiths that have arisen worldwide over the past several centuries. These [NRM] movements are often highly eclectic, pluralistic, and syncretistic; they freely combine doctrines and practices from diverse sources within their belief systems. The new movement is usually founded by a charismatic and sometimes highly authoritarian leader who is thought to have extraordinary powers or insights. Many NRMs are tightly organized. In light of their often self-proclaimed “alternative” or “outsider” status, these groups often make great demands on the loyalty and commitment of their followers and sometimes establish themselves as substitutes for the family and other conventional social groupings” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2022)
Typically, the charismatic leader can demand and receive complete devotion from his or her followers. The foundation of charismatic authority is emotional, not rational: it rests on trust and faith, both of which can be blind and uncritical. Unrestrained by custom, rules, or precedent, the charismatic leader can demand and receive unlimited power. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2022,)
HIGH DEMAND GROUP is a term used interchangeably with the term cult as it specifies the high level of commitment one is required to give to secure their place in the group.
The group is focused on a living leader to whom members seem to display excessively zealous, unquestioning commitment. The group is preoccupied with bringing in new members. The leadership dictates sometimes in great detail how members should think, act, and feel. The group is elitist, claiming a special, exalted status for itself, its leader(s), and members (for example: the leader is considered the Messiah or an avatar; the group and/or the leader has a special mission to save humanity) etc (S. Eichel PhD)
INTENTIONAL COMMUNITY – Interestingly, when googling Morningland today, there is no mention of the call for devotees of “Donato the Christ,” and the important work to recruit more people for this “divine” purpose (no one knows what that might be). Instead, their online identity is presented with culturally acceptable and currently popular elements such as yoga, mindfulness, community, and sustainability. They are nested under the umbrella of intentional communities, which refer to a wide variety of organizations that share a common value and may or may not have anything to do with cults, new religious movements, or high-demand groups. Based on information from the Fellowship for Intentional Community (2005), 64% of Intentional Communities are democratic, and 9% are actually hierarchical and authoritarian. This makes a decent amount of intentional communities potential cults or high-demand groups.
SYSTEMS OF CONTROL
Power Structure – Deception – Transcendent Belief System – Types of Control – Influence
THE AUTHORITARIAN POWER STRUCTURE – HIERARCHY
A destructive cult is a pyramid-shaped authoritarian regime with a person or group of people that have dictatorial control.” (Hassan PhD, FreedomOfMind)
Typically, charismatic leader can demand and receive complete devotion from their followers. The foundation of charismatic authority is emotional, not rational: it rests on trust and faith, both of which can be blind and uncritical” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2022).
Those in a cult seldom recognize that they are in one because the connection to the group is mainly emotional. Even reading about cults and identifying other groups as cults did not help us recognize that we were in one too. Logic and reason did not penetrate the deep emotional attachment that made us see Sri Donato and the Gopis as links to God, and our spiritual salvation. In reality, and based on our experiences, it was social isolation. This should not come as a surprise as cultic groups are closed-in social systems.
Their often self-proclaimed ‘credentials’ of enlightenment or special wisdom allow that person to assume unlimited power and present themselves as always right without questioning. The followers are required to demonstrate loyalty and obedience to the leader without questioning or doubt. These two qualities also happen to be instrumental in securing the leader’s control and influence over the followers.
A former political cult member Alexandra Stein Ph.D., in her book “Terror, Love, and Brainwashing” writes about the structure of hierarchical, totalistic groups:
The structure must allow the transmission downward of the leader’s orders and ideological pronouncements while simultaneously funneling resources from followers back upwards to the leader. …. although the group is closed and steeply hierarchical, usually this hierarchy is fluid and fluctuating.
There is generally a lieutenant layer, but as the leader must prevent alternative power bases from developing, he or she ensures that life as a lieutenant is insecure with frequent promotions and demotions in these higher ranks.
The ideology is determined by the leader and can be changed at a moment’s notice by the leader, and only by the leader. The sacred word is the word of the leader, or something that of a deity to whom the leader is the only one to have a direct line.
The leader targets people who will fit the organization well and places them in the hierarchy based on their receptiveness and the skills they bring to further the leader’s agenda.
In general, cults have a hierarchical or pyramid type of structure. At the lowest level, members are part-timers who are only partially committed to the group and [and will] less likely to be manipulated or abused to any significant extent because achieving strong influence over a person really requires that they be exposed to a mind control environment on a more full-time basis. Mind control [aka deep influence] only works on a foundation of personal friendship and trust, and it takes time and effort. … intensive mind control is generally only applied to selected individuals who are perceived to be not only receptive but who also have something that the group leadership wants. Sometimes this is money or sex, or it may be some practical or business skill which is desired by the group leadership in order to expand the group or to raise money. (Ex-Cult Resource Center)
Morningland leaders seem to be particularly fond of musicians, especially female singers, and exerted what some would consider an unhealthy amount of influence over them. Additionally, young, intelligent, good-looking, obedient individuals willing to further the leader’s goals were lifted into the higher ranks for as long as they were useful to the leader and can be discarded at any point (as devotees we were supposed to be selfless – without a strong sense of self). Some devotees gave up their former life goals to devote all of their time to the service of the group and its leaders (cleaning, gardening, cooking, fundraising, leading guest programs, meditations, and solving the organization’s recruitment problems).
This is one of several key differences between established religions and cultic groups.
A destructive cult is a pyramid-shaped authoritarian regime with a person or group of people that have dictatorial control. It uses deception to recruit new members and does not tell them what the group is, what the group actually believes, and what will be expected of them if they become members. It also uses undue influence to keep people dependent, obedient, and loyal. (Hassan, PhD, FreedomOfMind)
The omission of key information is a misleading act and also a form of deception. When we came to Morningland, we were invited to culturally popular events, such as meditation or a yoga class. We were not immediately told (lack of informed consent) the group’s entire belief system – that Donato was seen as a Christ, the Avatar for the Aquarian Age (one of many that sprang in the 1970s), and that Sri Donato’s and the Gopis’ thoughts, emotions, and actions were considered pure and, therefore should not be questioned. As newcomers, we were not informed that male disciples will be “suggested” to undergo a vasectomy as a way of preserving spiritual energy necessary for spiritual development. The organization’s full history was not disclosed. We were encouraged to develop complete trust in the Gopis and Sri Donato which they betrayed when they allegedly interfered with our marriages and, in some cases, even our sexuality. The list goes on.
Steve Hassan PhD shares his memory of a time when he was being recruited by young, beautiful women, members of the Unification Church:
At some point they said they were part of a student movement, trying to make the world a better place. I said, “Are you part of some sort of religious group?” They said no. They also didn’t say they were celibate and that Reverend Moon was going to match people and tell them when they could have sex. If they had, I would have said: “You’re crazy, leave me alone.” I say this to highlight the point about deception: people don’t knowingly join cults. (the Guardian)
TRANSCENDENT BELIEF SYSTEM
The leader represents the group’s ideal, the highest achievement one is supposed to strive for. In many cultic groups, the leader is seen as the embodiment of God or God-like qualities, almost perfect, seemingly transcended human nature and became something more, divine. The disciples are to work on constantly changing themselves to be more like the leader; to deny their human nature and become who the leader implies they were supposed to be.
The transcendent belief system ensnares people in a number of ways. Each member’s constant striving for an impossible ideal makes them feel inadequate about themselves and their accomplishments. All they know is that they must work harder to live up to the group’s demands, change themselves, and become more perfect. A large part of this push for perfection is that people are encouraged to constantly scrutinize, criticize, or even berate themselves and other group members. Each follower’s dedication and personal commitment impels him or her to become self-recriminating and self-critical and to be deeply critical of others as well. This interplay of critical attitudes and self-condemning behaviors means that people don’t have the time or clarity to seriously question their leader’s actions, rigid ideas, or the workings of the controlling social system that the leader has created.” (Escaping Utopia)
In many transcendent belief systems, wonder, free-thinking, and doubt are welcomed and supported. But in the controlled and sealed-off world of cults, free-thinking and doubt are not allowed. In many cults, your purpose is to become a perfect person: unquestioning, fiercely dedicated, and doubt-free devotee.” (Lalich, McLaren)
In Morningland, Sri Donato, and her husband Donato are seen as the perfect examples of spiritually developed beings who have allegedly transcended their human nature. The current Gopis are seen in a similar light of near perfection. As disciples we were discouraged from questioning their judgment and guidance. The Gopis told us that doubt is the enemy of the spiritual, and always comes from outside Morningland. This way, our own thoughts (doubts) had to be rejected as invalid, which was a form of self gaslighting – denying our own reality. Doubt in this was was a necessary component preventing blind obedience. Blind obedience is a fast track to doing as we were told without much thought about it.
The ends justify the means. You can be asked to do anything, and as long as it is in the service of the goals of the organization and the leader’s wishes, it is ok. Over time members give up their own morality to follow the morality of the leader.” (Lalich, PhD)
The following excerpts of the BITE model by Steve Hassan, Ph.D.
- BEHAVIOR CONTROL – Promoting an ongoing dependence on the leader’s advice, proximity, and good graces, to ensure unwavering loyalty. Using rewards and punishment to modify followers’ behavior.
- INFORMATION CONTROL – Deliberately withhold and distort information, promote secrecy within the community and forbid sharing information among members and partners, discourage access to non-cult sources of information, divide information into insider vs. outsider doctrine (closer disciples vs. regular disciples vs. members vs. outsiders), and forbid or discourage from speaking with ex-members.
- THOUGHT CONTROL – Instill us vs. them, & good vs. evil thinking. Changing followers’ identity (i.e., you are now lay-monks/ your name is now xy) that is strongly linked with the group or leader. Using loaded language and cliches. Encourage to reject rational analysis, critical thinking, & doubt if it goes against the group’s doctrine. Using guilt ensures members think positively about other members and the leaders while denying their personal experience.
- EMOTIONAL CONTROL -Instill irrational fears of questioning or leaving the group. Seek to label some emotions low, worldly, wrong, immature, unevolved, etc. Teach emotion-stopping techniques. Shunning for disobeying or disbelieving. Only positive emotions are allowed.
The influence is based on a continuum, which varies within a group and between its members, depending on their usefulness to the leaders.
Overall, constructive groups will lean in a healthy direction on all accounts, while destructive groups will not, as that would dissolve their structure and power. When in Morningland, many of us heard the leaders endorse most of the items on the constructive side, creating the impression that this was our reality. However, reality and words in cultic groups are typically not in sync. (see Mind F***s). For example, followers cannot be empowered by a leader who exerts such vast power and influence over their lives. The imbalance in the power dynamic cannot support true empowerment. Free will is limited to the constraints of the group’s ideology, and the dependency on the leader, and thus cannot be fully exercised. While we were free to leave at any time, this was not done easily and without heavy consequences (being shunned, losing former friends and lifestyle, losing perceived connection to God, feeling traumatized by the process, etc). The process of indoctrination into the Morningland social structure created extremely deep psychological chains.
Examples of using BITE controls to secure attachment to the leader and/or group using fear:
- Fear of the external world is used to solidify one’s attachment and loyalty to the leader and their place in the hierarchy. Sri Donato / Patricia would say that leaving her would result in our spiritual fall and a de-evolution into a quark. The Gopis were more subtle and instilled a quiet warning of losing true security from the dark forces. They added that Donato was the very last Christ or Avatar to have incarnated on Earth, and this was our last chance to evolve beyond this planet. We were told Earth was in its dark Kali Yuga age, and Morningland was in the Golden Age, the Shangri-La. Therefore, leaving Morningland would result in separation from a direct connection to God.
- The attachment to the group and the leaders were solidified in their talks about the Apocalypse/End Days and the urgency to “save” (recruit) more people. Sri Donato had very 1980s-like ideas about that (see image below). Our worldview was supposed to be dark and apocalyptic, making Morningland seem light and a spiritual refuge. There was no space for seeing anything positive in the world.
Takeaways: Cult (New Age, Personality) – New Religious Movement – High Demand Group, Authoritarian-Hierarchical-Pyramid power structure, Charismatic leader, Deception, Dependency, BITE controls, Influence continuum
Mantika, June 2023